Sunday, February 6, 2011

First post - A little bit about this Turbocharger Specs page

I have been around turbos for a long time. So this page is also to help me keep information in one place, so I don't need to look all over the web everytime I need some information about a turbocharger.

I'm very technical in person, I enjoy taking stuff apart and look how it's made. And the same goes for turbos. I took apart a Holset turbo that I have a few months ago. And was pleasantly supprised. The Holset turbo had a Billet Compressor wheel, maram shaft (exellent for anti lag) and floating journal bearings.

The turbo is a Holset HX52 turbocharger. It's a 67mm turbo (Inducer) Twinentry T4 flange with a 16cm exhaust housing. And 70mm Exducer. The power you can get from this turbo is around 700 whp.

That's on a 4x4 car with E85 in the tank. You can't get 700 whp with the 16cm housing that easy because it's a little bit to small.

So if you are planing on breaking 700 whp you should look for a bigger exhaust housing. I know only one car (as of today Feb 2011) a front wheel drive Honda that have broken 700 whp with a 16cm housing. And that was on high octance race gas. So i'm not saying it can't be done, just that it's less problematic if you put on a bigger exhaust housing.

Some people say that because the Holsets are made for diesels they don't work on "normal" cars running on pump gas. And won't spool good. Well that's not true. However the Holset turbos are picky when it comes to how you build you're manifold.

Holset turbos are pulse driven turbos. Because diesels have colder exhaust gases the turbos need to be more efficient with the energy given to them than other turbos. So they will work best and spool up best if you run pulesplit manifolds.

Above picture is of the same Holset HX52 turbo Vs the smaller Holset HX35. The HX35 is a 54mm turbo (Inducer) Twinentry T3 flange. Running a 12cm exhaust housing. And 60mm exducer. The small HX35 is a solid 500 whp turbo. Many people are running these, and are very happy with them.

You may wonder what anti lag is that i mentioned above and what it means. And it's the bangs you hear from the rally cars. It keeps the turbocharger spinning and delivering boost pressure to the engine all the time even when the throttle is closed.

How do I know? I live in Finland. There's a saying when it comes to auto racing "If you want to win, employ a finn!" There is rumours that there's rally cars hidden away in every bar here in Finland. And that's the reason we are so good at what we do. Well I would not say every barn, but I know of a few... No but we do start racing at an early age. And the weather conditions here, snow in winter together with twisty roads helps train people.

This page however I will try to keep to turbochargers and have a good amount of information about them.

I'm trying to keep a very good collection and with all the information, so things like. Inducer, Exducer, Exhaust housing, Compressor wheel, Turbine wheel, Twinentry, Single entry, power that can be extracted and so on will be included.

I made the decision that I will not include older turbos here. I will have some information on them, but I will not spend to much time on turbos like the old Garrett T3 from Garrett's T-Series and the like from "the eighties". It's 2011 now and turbocharger technology have gotten way better now and I recommend that if anyone is still using an old turbo like that. Change it fast. You won't regret it.

To give you an example an ordinary Holset HX40 (this is a 600 whp turbo) with a good manifold will spool up like an Garrett T3 turbo. So that should be reason enough for you to get rid of that old turbo of yours.

Also a good little investment is a thing called a Flow Control Valve from Tilton. Supposedly reduces the chances of you destroying your gearbox or other transmission parts.

The description says_:

Tilton flow control valve is designed to reduce shock loads to the driveline
by allowing the clutch to slip slightly during engagement. Shock load is a
result of an abrupt clutch engagement when the crankshaft and input shaft
speeds are not precisely matched. The flow control valve is designed to
reduce the chance of losing traction when downshifting and/or the chance
of damaging driveline components.
Fluid flow is not restricted during clutch disengagement. Therefore, shift
times are still quick and pedal feel is not altered. The valve will have an effect
on quick clutch actuations only. It will not alter fine clutch modulation.
Includes three orifice sizes (.021", .028", .040") that enable clutch
engagement to be tuned. The valves features AN3 fittings for use with most
Tilton master cylinders and –3 hydraulic lines.

Part Number Flow control valve 90-5000

I also have more technical pages for you that will come in handy. They will be of great help when looking at compressor maps Use the conversion tools And you will be able to calculate airflow, pressure and HP figures for the turbocharger you are interested in.


Irvine Long said...

Where I can find the hx52 housing 16cm2?

JD said...


You can get new spares from any local Holset distributor. Or you can get used ones on Ebay if you know what you are looking for. The HX52 turbocharger part number is 3599996. And the 16cm2 exhaust housing part number is 3598949 or 3598950. Exhaust housing air ratio (A/R) is 16cm and these comes with the V-band clamp.

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Folks don't forget about racing safety gear when buying auto racing parts

I have been tuning engines for a long time and with that experience I tend to look a bit more at how other people tune their cars and bikes than anyone else. Now this is not true for everyone, but most of you will recognize yourself at some level.

About 25 years ago the level of tuning an ordinary street car would ever see was at most 30% increase in power. (Not true for every car out there, but I'm talking ordinary street cars here)

So if you had an Ford, Volvo or BMW the amount of power you could get would have been in the 150hp range and in some extreme cases 250hp. At this point this was the "limit" of ordinary naturally aspirated engines at that time. Yes there was a lot of racing going on at that time, and some of these race engines did get put into street cars and power levels would have been 300+ hp. But the amount of maintenance these race engines required and the cost to keep them running were too much for most people.

Back then you could not just go into a racing store and buy yourself a set of forged pistons and connecting rods. Let alone camshafts and valves to build your race engine.

With the introduction of turbochargers however the power suddenly increased to levels that are still uncommon in today’s cars. At the beginning people where not really sure how to tune turbo engines and intercoolers where something that most people had never heard of. Silicone hoses where did you get that?

You would have to know someone in the maintenence department that did service on trucks or busses that had turbocharged Diesel engines at the time to buy the simple things like, clamps, hoses, gaskets, oil lines etc. Even something like an external Wastegate that are availiable almost everywhere now today you could not get your hands on. And something like real drag tires where not that common either.

But as time passed by, engine tuners got their hands on more parts, most that had the machines and tools started to make their own intercoolers, wastegates and all the parts that were hard to get and the knowledge and the tuning business took of.

Now it still took some time before engine management systems and electric fuel injection where you could really start to extract power out of engines became common and figure out how to tune the software to make that work. To start if you found someone who could tune these you would have to fork out serious doe to get everything working. Well you still might have to do that today, and serious race teams do spend alot of money to get the electrical side working right. Today there are so many more things you can do with a powerful ECU, like traction control, different boost pressures for low and high gears, launch control, shiftcut etc.. This list is very long.

But before all that came chip tuning and fuel injected turbo engines. What was unheard of just 20 years ago would now become a reality for anyone with a few minutes of tuning. Some of you might know the story of the Ford RS Cosworth, Nissan Skyline, Audi S1 Quattro, Lancia S4 to name a few and other icons of the late 1980 and early 1990. The turbo engines back then would give you 200hp and that is still today 25 years on about the same power level you would get from a new car. However today this is a common power figure for a station wagon. And back in the 80s only a few racing breed turbo engines would give you that.

But with a few changes to the ECU with chip tuning and some larger fuel injectors all that was needed then was to turn up the boost pressure and 350hp where unleashed. The only real limit here was only how much air the standard turbocharger could supply.

Sure there where different levels of basic tuning you could do but the effect was the same, more power.

With more and more tuner friendly cars coming out over the years the power figures are still holding almost the same. Just until recently where the powerfigures have really started to go up and beyond what was thought possible only a few years ago..

But what have really changed today is the huge amount of DIY tuners out there. What engine tuners did 25 years ago have now entered the garage and racing parts have now become widely available to anyone. From the cheap Chinese made turbo exhaust manifolds to wastegates and almost every tuning part you can think of to the pure racing parts like forged pistons and engine management systems on sale that anyone can buy.

So what has happened is anyone with a little background in mechanics can now build their own race engine. Power levels have just gone up and up and up.. It’s not uncommon to see street cars today with 500hp and then there are the ones who have gone even higher, breaking the 1000hp barrier.

The one thing that all these engines have in common to achieve such power levels are of course the turbocharger. Without the turbo it would not have been possible. Well a supercharger or N02 injection could do the job too but that’s another story.

However time and time again people forget the most important parts when tuning cars. I’m talking about safety and racing safety gear. I do see that people buy racing seats and that’s good. But most of the time they don’t buy racing seats because of the added safety. It’s because they think racing seats look good. And what about things like auto racing helmets that keeps your head intact. Most of the time people come to the track without real racing helmets and if it’s street racing that’s taking place, no one seems to bother wearing any kind of racing helmets at all.

I do understand that people feel protected inside their cars and they don’t think they need roll cages and in some cases opt for roll bars instead but you really need to think about this.

Some of the racing safety gear you should look at are the following:
racing suit
racing shoes
racing helmets
racing gloves

This would be the minimum for my liking if your going on a trackday or similar race day event with your tuned car.

In case you don’t have a fuel cell in your car and there is a chance of fire or fuel leak then you should consider racing fire suits also because these will save your life.

Fire is not to be taken lightly. If you have a good fuel system in place to feed your engine and anyone who are looking for power is going to have that. Then you need to understand that at any given time those racing fuel pumps are pumping 2 gallons of fuel every minute. And if you get a leak and have an accident you are in real trouble if the power to the pumps are not cut right away.

So having the right racing safety gear to protect you is always a good choice. Today’s car are much safer than the ones years ago, but you need to understand that when we double and triple the amount of power and turn our 100mph car into a 200mph fire spitting monster of a car you really, really should spend some time and pick out some racing safety gear also.